Appraisal of African languages’ children’s literature and its translation seems to be developing at a slow pace. This literary genre seems to be the last on the literary critics’ list. As a result, children’s literature translators seem to do as they please, with no fear that there is someone to critique the work.
Translation for children is more than just literary translation, because it is meant for a special audience, whose language skills are still developing. The translator, therefore, needs to be someone dedicated in target language development. This translation needs a translator with a deep knowledge of both the source and target languages and their cultures. This will result in a translation that is readable and acceptable in the target language.
The aim of this study was to critically analyse 20 selected isiXhosa translated stories, looking at how they have been translated in order to sound original in the target language. A sample of five stories were taken and analysed looking at their macrosturcture. The findings of the analysis were that the isiXhosa stories resembled the English ones. Even the equivalence of the translated versions showed that the translation transferred the message in the source texts. However there were challenges as indicated. The study was done using Skopos theory, which advocates for the translator to always keep their audience in mind. It suggests that the translator should always strive for a translation that is acceptable to the target language. Various strategies can be used by the translator to fulfil this.
Some of the strategies found to have been used in the translations are adaptation through omission, addition, addition of target culture specific terms, and changing sentence mode. Generally, the source language message seems to have been successfully transferred to the target language.
However, errors in some stories were a cause for concern, as they could deter the target reader’s interest in the stories. Such errors are spelling mistakes, word division errors, incorrect concord use, etc. These errors are a matter of concern in literature, more especially children’s literature where children are still developing their reading skills.
Uguqulelo nophicotho loncwadi lwabantwana olubhalwe ngeelwimi zesiNtu kunye noluguqulelweyo lwasiwa kuzo ngumba ofuna ukuthathelwa ingqalelo emandla ziingcali zoguqulelo. Okwangoku ngathi uncwadi lwabantwana lusesemsileni kwiintlobo zoncwadi oluguqulelweyo ezithi ziphicothwe ziingcali. Loo nto ibonakala ngathi yenza ukuba abaguqulelibabhali bazibone bekhululekile, bengenaxhala lakunqwanqwadwa ngomsebenzi abawenzayo.
Ukuguqulela uncwadi olulungiselelwe abantwana kudinga umguqulelimbhali ozinikeleyo nozimiseleyo emsebenzini wakhe, nongalindi khala oza kumbeka esweni malunga nempumelelo yoguqulelo lwakhe. Ludinga umguqulelimbhali onamava ngokubhala nozinikeleyo kuphuhliso lolo lwimi aguqulela esisa kulo. Kufuneka umguqulelimbhali abe nolwazi oluphangaleleyo malunga nazo zombini ezi lwimi zibandakanyeka kuguqulelo lwakhe, ulwimi lwentsusa kunye nolwimi ekusiwa kulo. Ukuba oku kwenzekile, utsho akwazi ukukhupha inguqulelo eleseka kamnandi kulwimi ekusiwa kulo, ivakale ngathi yimbalo yentsusa engaguqulelwanga.
Injongo yolu phando ibikukuphicotha amabali akhethiweyo, angama-20, kujongwe indlela aguqulelwe ngayo ukuba iwenza avakale njani kulwimi ekusiwa kulo. Kuthathwe isampule yamabali amahlanu esiNgesi kunye neenguqulelo zawo zesiXhosa, kwajongwa isakhiwo sangaphandle. Kufumaniseke ukuba isakhiwo sangaphandle sala mabali esiXhosa asahlukanga kuyaphi kweso sawesiNgesi. Kanti naxa kujongwa ukuhambelana kwala mabali ayisampule, aye abonakala ehambelana nalawo esiNgesi. Konke obekusenziwa kolu phando bekusenziwa kuqanyelwe ngethiyori yeSikoposi ekhankasela inguqulelo evakala ngathi yimbalo yoqobo. Ithiyori yeSikoposi ikhuthaza ukuba umguqulelimbhali asoloko ecinga malunga nomlesi wenguqulelo yakhe kuyo yonke into ayenzayo. Icebisa ukuba umguqulelimbhali asebenzele ukukhupha inguqulelo engayi kuvakala ngathi yinguqulelo, koko eya kuba ngathi libali loqobo elibhalwe ngolu lwimi kusiwa kulo. Zininzi iindlela ezinokusetyenziswa ngumguqulelimbhali ukufezekisa oku; kuquka ezo sele zikho kunye neendlela ezibonakala zifaneleke ngokukodwa kwiilwimi zesiNtu.
Phakathi kweendlela ezithe zafunyaniswa zisetyenziswe ngabaguqulelibabhali bala mabali kukho ukushiyelela, ukongezelela, ukongezelela inkcubeko yolwimi ekusiwa kulo, ukuguqula imosivakalisi. Xa kujongwa umyalezo gabalala obudluliswa ngababhali bolwimi lwentsusa, abaguqulelibabhali babonakala bewufezile umsebenzi wabo wokuwudlulisela kulwimi ekusiwa kulo.
Kodwa ke kumabali athile kuthe kwabhaqeka neempazamo ezinokwethisa umdla wabantwana ekuleseni ibali elo. Ezi mpazamo zezo zifana nezopelo, uqhawulomagama, ukusetyenziswa kwezivumelanisi ezingezizo, njalo njalo. Ezi ziimpazamo ezingalunganga kuncwadi, ngokukodwa olwabantwana, kuba kufuneka umlesi alulese engaphazanyiswa ziimpazamo zolwimi.