Microorganisms as Biologically Safe Sources for the Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticles
Nanoparticles are of great importance in the science of nanobiotechnology, which are compounds within the size of 1 to 100 nanometers. The most important and widely used substances are metal nanoparticles. Over the last several years, various physical and chemical methods have been used for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles. Most of these chemical methods impose severe environmental problems and biological risks, therefore the present study reports a biological route for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles.
Biological methods for nanoparticle synthesis using microorganisms have been suggested as a potential alternative to chemical and physical methods. compared to the chemical methods, the biological methods are clean, non-toxic, safe, low cost, simple, and environmentally acceptable. The aim of these developments is to allow the use of toxic chemicals and reduce energy consumption by using simple, rapid, and safe routes. In this way, not only the size of the nanoparticles but also their shape is controlled and the nanoparticles are collected as an element in the wall (outside or inside) of the microorganism's cell. Natural microorganisms include bacteria, fungi, yeasts, algae, protozoa, and viruses but the importance of bacteria, fungi, yeasts, and algae in the biosynthesis of nanoparticles is greater than that of other microorganisms and in this research, we will talk about it.