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An alternative approach in General Relativity describing Gravitational RedShift, Geons, Black Holes without Singularities and Dark Matter

Version 4 2023-12-27, 19:09
Version 3 2023-12-23, 23:02
Version 2 2023-12-09, 19:53
Version 1 2023-12-07, 14:01
posted on 2023-12-27, 19:09 authored by Wim VegtWim Vegt

Einstein approached the interaction between gravity and light by the introduction of the “Einstein Gravitational Constant” in the 4-dimensional Energy-Stress Tensor (1). In this alternative approach related to General Relativity, the interaction between gravity and light has been presented by the sum of the Electromagnetic Tensor and the Gravitational Tensor (2) . The new approach presents mathematical solutions for the GEONs (Gravitational Electromagnetic Interaction) introduced in 1955 by Jonh Archibald Wheeler in the publication in Physical Review Letters in 1955 [1]. The mathematical solutions for GEONs (Black Holes without Singularities) are fundamental solutions for the relativistic quantum mechanical Dirac equation (Quantum Physics) in Tensor presentation (35). Assuming a constant speed of light “c” and Planck’s constant ħ within the GEON, the radius “R” of the GEON with the energy of a proton, is about 1% of the radius of the hydrogen atom (14). The New Theory has been tested in an experiment with 2 Galileo Satellites and a Ground Station by measuring the Gravitational RedShift in an by the Ground Station emitted stable MASER frequency [2]. The difference between the calculation for Gravitational RedShift, within the Gravitational Field of the Earth, in “General Relativity” and the “New Theory” is smaller than 10-16 (12) and (13). In all “General Redshift Experiments” General Relativity and the New Theory predict a Gravitational RedShift with a difference smaller than 15 digits beyond the decimal point which is beyond the accuracy of modern “Gravitational Redshift” observations. Both values are always within the measured Gravitational RedShift in all observations being published since the first observation of the gravitational redshift in the spectral lines from the White Dwarf which was the measurement of the shift of the star Sirius B, the white dwarf companion to the star Sirius, by W.S. Adams in 1925 at Mt. Wilson Observatory. Theories which unify Quantum Physics and General Relativity, like “String Theory”, predict the non-constancy of natural constants. Accurate observations of the NASA Messenger [11] observe in time a value for the gravitational constant “G” which constrains until (G' /G to be < 4 × 10-14 per year) . One of the characteristics of the New Theory is the “Constant Value” in time for the Gravitational Constant “G” in unifying General Relativity and Quantum Physics.