Video3_Archetypal Architecture Construction, Patterning, and Scaling Invariance in a 3D Embryoid Body Differentiation Model.MP4
Self-organized patterning and architecture construction studying is a priority goal for fundamental developmental and stem cell biology. To study the spatiotemporal patterning of pluripotent stem cells of different origins, we developed a three-dimensional embryoid body (EB) differentiation model quantifying volumetric parameters and investigated how the EB architecture formation, patterning, and scaling depend on the proliferation, cavitation, and differentiation dynamics, external environmental factors, and cell numbers. We identified three similar spatiotemporal patterns in the EB architectures, regardless of cell origin, which constitute the EB archetype and mimick the pre-gastrulation embryonic patterns. We found that the EB patterning depends strongly on cellular positional information, culture media factor/morphogen content, and free diffusion from the external environment and between EB cell layers. However, the EB archetype formation is independent of the EB size and initial cell numbers forming EBs; therefore, it is capable of scaling invariance and patterning regulation. Our findings indicate that the underlying principles of reaction-diffusion and positional information concepts can serve as the basis for EB architecture construction, patterning, and scaling. Thus, the 3D EB differentiation model represents a highly reproducible and reliable platform for experimental and theoretical research on developmental and stem cell biology issues.