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Time Resolved Measurements of Speciated Tailpipe Emissions from Motor Vehicles: Trends with Emission Control Technology, Cold Start Effects, and Speciation

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journal contribution
posted on 2016-11-15, 00:00 authored by Greg T. Drozd, Yunliang Zhao, Georges Saliba, Bruce Frodin, Christine Maddox, Robert J. Weber, M.-C. Oliver Chang, Hector Maldonado, Satya Sardar, Allen L. Robinson, Allen H. Goldstein
Experiments were conducted at the California Air Resources Board Haagen-Smit Laboratory to understand changes in vehicle emissions in response to stricter emissions standards over the past 25 years. Measurements included a wide range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for a wide range of spark ignition gasoline vehicles meeting varying levels of emissions standards, including all certifications from Tier 0 up to Partial Zero Emission Vehicle. Standard gas chromatography (GC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HLPC) analyses were employed for drive-cycle phase emissions. A proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer measured time-resolved emissions for a wide range of VOCs. Cold-start emissions occur almost entirely in the first 30–60 s for newer vehicles. Cold-start emissions have compositions that are not significantly different across all vehicles tested and are markedly different from neat fuel. Hot-stabilized emissions have varying importance depending on species and may require a driving distance of 200 miles to equal the emissions from a single cold start. Average commute distances in the U.S. suggest the majority of in-use vehicles have emissions dominated by cold starts. The distribution of vehicle ages in the U.S. suggests that within several years only a few percent of vehicles will have significant driving emissions compared to cold-start emissions.