The phytochemical quality of Camelina sativa seed and oil
A field experiment with 66 spring biotypes and 9 winter biotypes of Camelina sativa was conducted in Poland in a two-year cycle (2016–2017). The quantitative profile of 8 flavonoid aglycones, 12 phenolic acids and the fatty acid profile were analysed. There were no significant differences in the concentration of total flavonoids, phenolic acids and fatty acids in the camelina seeds during the research years, but there were differences between the spring and winter cultivars. The total concentration of flavonoids in the spring forms amounted from 404 ± 38.5 to 429.9 ± 13.8 mg/kg; in the winter ones from 507.3 ± 51.4 to 526.4 ± 10.4 mg/kg. Similarly with phenolic acids, the concentration ranged from 2043.6 ± 62.5 to 2174.0 ± 145.2 mg/kg in the spring forms and from 3936.0 ± 210.8 to 3704.7 ± 195.4 mg/kg in the winter forms. The linoleic acid comprised 14% of total fatty acid content in spring biotypes and 16% in winter ones, while α-linolenic acid had similar content (37–38%). Camelina's adaptation to vast areas of the world, high oil concentration and its composition and properties makes it a suitable oil source for the production of biofuels, jet fuel, biobased-products, feed and food.