Synergistic Effect of Copper Ion on the Reductive Dechlorination of Carbon Tetrachloride by Surface-Bound Fe(II) Associated with Goethite
journal contributionposted on 2003-11-19, 00:00 authored by R. A. Maithreepala, Ruey-an Doong
The dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride (CT) by Fe(II) associated with goethite in the presence of transition metal ions was investigated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) were used to characterize the chemical states and crystal phases of transition metals on solid phases, respectively. CT was dechlorinated to chloroform (CF) by 3 mM Fe(II) in 10 mM goethite (25.6 m2 L-1) suspensions. The dechlorination followed pseudo-first-order kinetics, and a rate constant (kobs) of 0.036 h-1 was observed. Transition metal ions have different effects on CT dechlorination. The addition of Ni(II), Co(II), and Zn(II) lowered the kobs for CT dechlorination, whereas the amendment of 0.5 mM Cu(II) into the Fe(II)−Fe(III) system significantly enhanced the efficiency and the rate of CT dechlorination. The kobs for CT dechlorination with 0.5 mM Cu(II) was 1.175 h-1, which was 33 times greater than that without Cu(II). Also, the dechlorination of CT by surface-bound iron species is pH-dependent, and the rate constants increased from 0.008 h-1 at pH 4.0 to 1.175 h-1 at pH 7.0. When the solution contained Cu(II) and Fe(II) without goethite, a reddish-yellow precipitate was formed, and the concentration of Fe(II) decreased with the increase in Cu(II) concentration. XPS and XRPD analyses suggested the possible presence of Cu2O and ferrihydrite in the precipitate. Small amounts of aqueous Cu(I) were also detected, reflecting the fact that Cu(II) was reduced to Cu(I) by Fe(II). A linear relationship between kobs for CT dechlorination and the concentration of Cu(II) was observed when the amended Cu(II) concentration was lower than 0.5 mM. Moreover, the kobs for CT dechlorination was dependent on the Fe(II) concentration in the 0.5 mM Cu(II)-amended goethite system and followed a Langmuir−Hinshelwood relationship. These results clearly indicate that Fe(II) serves as the bulk reductant to reduce both CT and Cu(II). The resulting Cu(I) can further act as a catalyst to enhance the dechlorination rate of chlorinated hydrocarbons in iron-reducing environments.