ARTICLE ABSTRACTTumor metabolism is reprogrammed to meet the demands of proliferating cancer cells. In particular, cancer cells upregulate synthesis of the membrane phospholipids phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdE) in order to allow for rapid membrane turnover. Nonetheless, we show here that, in mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDHmut) gliomas, which produce the oncometabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG), PtdCho and PtdE biosynthesis is downregulated and results in lower levels of both phospholipids when compared with wild-type IDH1 cells. 2-HG inhibited collagen-4-prolyl hydroxylase activity, leading to accumulation of misfolded procollagen-IV in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of both genetically engineered and patient-derived IDHmut glioma models. The resulting ER stress triggered increased expression of FAM134b, which mediated autophagic degradation of the ER (ER-phagy) and a reduction in the ER area. Because the ER is the site of phospholipid synthesis, ER-phagy led to reduced PtdCho and PtdE biosynthesis. Inhibition of ER-phagy via pharmacological or molecular approaches restored phospholipid biosynthesis in IDHmut glioma cells, triggered apoptotic cell death, inhibited tumor growth, and prolonged the survival of orthotopic IDHmut glioma-bearing mice, pointing to a potential therapeutic opportunity. Glioma patient biopsies also exhibited increased ER-phagy and downregulation of PtdCho and PtdE levels in IDHmut samples compared with wild-type, clinically validating our observations. Collectively, this study provides detailed and clinically relevant insights into the functional link between oncometabolite-driven ER-phagy and phospholipid biosynthesis in IDHmut gliomas.Significance: Downregulation of phospholipid biosynthesis via ER-phagy is essential for proliferation and clonogenicity of mutant IDH1 gliomas, a finding with immediate therapeutic implications. Cancer Res; 78(9); 2290–304. ©2018 AACR.