Summary of predictor candidates (n = 290) measured in 30-day windows for predicting subsequent opioid overdosesa.
a: Details for the operational definitions for each variable and corresponding diagnosis and procedure codes and National Drug Codes can be provided per request to the corresponding author. b: We used an “as-prescribed” approach that assumes patients taking all prescribed opioids on the schedule recommended by their clinicians. (Bohnert AS et al. JAMA. 2011;305(13):1315–1321. doi: 10.1001/jama.2011.370). Patients who received refills for the same drug at the same dose and schedule while still having opioid prescriptions within three days from a prior fill were assumed to have taken the medication from the prior fill before taking medication from the second fill. (Gellad WF et al. Am J Public Health. 2018;108(2):248–255. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2017.304174). c: We calculated morphine milligram equivalent (MME) for each opioid prescription, defined by the quantity dispensed multiplied by the strength in milligrams, multiplied by a conversion factor. (Bohnert AS et al. JAMA. 2011;305(13):1315–1321. doi: 10.1001/jama.2011.370). For each person, the average daily MME during the 30-day window was calculated by summing MMEs across all opioids and dividing by the number of days supplied. d: Data sources were obtained from the Allegheny County Department of Human Services Data Warehouse in Pennsylvania, U.S. Abbreviations: BZD: Benzodiazepines; DUI: Driving under the influence; LAO: Long-acting opioids; MME: Morphine milligram equivalent; No: Number of; SAO: Short-acting opioids; SUD: Substance use disorders.