mt0c01136_si_001.pdf (865.56 kB)

Stimulation of Probiotic Bacteria Induces Release of Membrane Vesicles with Augmented Anti-inflammatory Activity

Download (865.56 kB)
journal contribution
posted on 2021-01-05, 20:07 authored by Lisann Müller, Thomas Kuhn, Marcus Koch, Gregor Fuhrmann
During infection, inflammation is an important contributor to tissue regeneration and healing, but it may also negatively affect these processes should chronic overstimulation take place. Similar issues arise in chronic inflammatory gastrointestinal diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases or celiac disease, which show increasing incidences worldwide. For these dispositions, probiotic microorganisms, including lactobacilli, are studied as an adjuvant therapy to counterbalance gut dysbiosis. However, not all who are affected can benefit from the probiotic treatment, as immunosuppressed or hospitalized patients can suffer from bacteremia or sepsis when living microorganisms are administered. A promising alternative is the treatment with bacteria-derived membrane vesicles that confer similar beneficial effects as the progenitor strains themselves. Membrane vesicles from lactobacilli have shown anti-inflammatory therapeutic effects, but it remains unclear whether the stimulation of probiotics induces vesicles that are more efficient. Here, the influence of culture conditions on the anti-inflammatory characteristics of Lactobacillus membrane vesicles was investigated. We reveal that the culture conditions of two Lactobacillus strains, namely, L. casei and L. plantarum, can be optimized to increase the anti-inflammatory effect of their vesicles. Five different cultivation conditions were tested, including pH manipulation, agitation rate, and oxygen supply, and the produced membrane vesicles were characterized physico-chemically regarding size, yield, and zeta potential. We furthermore analyzed the anti-inflammatory effect of the purified vesicles in macrophage inflammation models. Compared to standard cultivation conditions, vesicles obtained from L. casei cultured at pH 6.5 and agitation induced the strongest interleukin-10 release and tumor necrosis factor-α reduction. For L. plantarum, medium adjusted to pH 5 had the most pronounced effect on the anti-inflammatory activity of their vesicles. Our results reveal that the anti-inflammatory effect of probiotic vesicles may be potentiated by expanding different cultivation conditions for lactobacilli. This study creates an important base for the utilization of probiotic membrane vesicles to treat inflammation.