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Oxidation of 8‑Oxo-7,8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosine Leads to Substantial DNA-Histone Cross-Links within Nucleosome Core Particles

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journal contribution
posted on 09.11.2018, 00:00 by Jing Bai, Yingqian Zhang, Zhen Xi, Marc M. Greenberg, Chuanzheng Zhou
8-Oxo-7,8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosine­(8-oxodGuo) is a common primary product of cellular oxidative DNA damage. 8-OxodGuo is more readily oxidized than 2′-deoxyguanosine (dG); a two-electron oxidation generates a highly reactive intermediate (OGox), which forms covalent adducts with nucleophiles, including OH, free amines, and the side chains of amino acids such as lysine. We determined here that K3Fe­(CN)6 oxidation of 8-oxodGuo in nucleosome core particles (NCPs) produces high yields, quantitative (i.e., 100%) in some cases, of DNA-protein cross-links (DPCs). The efficiency of DPC formation was closely related to 8-oxodGuo base pairing and location within the NCP and was only slightly decreased by adding the DNA-protective polyamine spermine to the system. Using NCPs that contained histone mutants, we determined that DPCs result predominantly from OGox trapping by the N-terminal histone amine. The DPCs were stable under physiological conditions and therefore could have important biological consequences. For instance, the essentially quantitative yield of DPCs at some positions within NCPs would reduce the yield of the mutagenic DNA lesions spiroiminodihydantoin and guanidinohydantoin produced from the common intermediate OGox, which in turn would affect mutation signatures of oxidative stress in a position-dependent manner. In summary, our findings indicate that site-specific incorporation of 8-oxodGuo into NCPs, followed by its oxidation, leads to DPCs with an efficiency depending on 8-oxodGuo location and orientation. Given that 8-oxodGuo formation is widespread in genomic DNA and that DPC formation is highly efficient, DPCs may occur in eukaryotic cells and may affect several important biological processes.