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Novel Potent ABCB1 Modulator, Phenethylisoquinoline Alkaloid, Reverses Multidrug Resistance in Cancer Cell

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journal contribution
posted on 2018-07-27, 00:00 authored by Norihiko Sugisawa, Shinobu Ohnuma, Hirofumi Ueda, Megumi Murakami, Kyoko Sugiyama, Kosuke Ohsawa, Kuniyuki Kano, Hidetoshi Tokuyama, Takayuki Doi, Junken Aoki, Masaharu Ishida, Katsuyoshi Kudoh, Takeshi Naitoh, Suresh V. Ambudkar, Michiaki Unno
ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, which are concerned with the efflux of anticancer drugs from cancer cells, have a pivotal role in multidrug resistance (MDR). In particular, ABCB1 is a well-known ABC transporter that develops MDR in many cancer cells. Some ABCB1 modulators can reverse ABCB1-mediated MDR; however, no modulators with clinical efficacy have been approved. The aim of this study was to identify novel ABCB1 modulators by using high-throughput screening. Of the 5861 compounds stored at Tohoku University, 13 compounds were selected after the primary screening via a fluorescent plate reader-based calcein acetoxymethylester (AM) efflux assay. These 13 compounds were validated in a flow cytometry-based calcein AM efflux assay. Two isoquinoline derivatives were identified as novel ABCB1 inhibitors, one of which was a phenethylisoquinoline alkaloid, (±)-7-benzyloxy-1-(3-benzyloxy-4-methoxyphenethyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6-methoxy-2-methylisoquinoline oxalate. The compound, a phenethylisoquinoline alkaloid, was subsequently evaluated in the cytotoxicity assay and shown to significantly enhance the reversal of ABCB1-mediated MDR. In addition, the compound activated the ABCB1-mediated ATP hydrolysis and inhibited the photolabeling of ABCB1 with [125I]-iodoarylazidoprazosin. Furthermore, the compound also reversed the resistance to paclitaxel without increasing the toxicity in the ABCB1-overexpressing KB-V1 cell xenograft model. Overall, we concluded that the newly identified phenethylisoquinoline alkaloid reversed ABCB1-mediated MDR through direct interaction with the substrate-binding site of ABCB1. These findings may contribute to the development of more potent and less toxic ABCB1 modulators, which could overcome ABCB1-mediated MDR.