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Newly Developed Poly(Allyl Glycidyl Ether/Divinyl Benzene) Polymer for Phosphopeptides Enrichment and Desalting of Biofluids

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journal contribution
posted on 12.03.2014, 00:00 by Muhammad Najam-ul-Haq, Adeela Saeed, Fahmida Jabeen, Fernando Maya, Muhammad Naeem Ashiq, Ahsan Sharif
The polymeric materials have contributed significantly in the area of bioanalytical science. The functionalization of polymeric backbone after its development brings unique selectivity towards the target biomolecules. In present work, the functionalities of choice have been introduced through the ring-opening of allyl glycidyl ether. The utility of polymer is widened through derivatizations to immobilized metal ion affinity chromatographic (IMAC) material for the phosphopeptides enrichment and Reversed Phase (C-18) for the desalting prior to MALDI-MS analysis. The polymer-IMAC in addition to Fe3+ is also immobilized with lanthanide ions like La3+, Eu3+, and Er3+. The amount of Fe3+ immobilized is determined as 0.7928 mg/g. Spherical morphology with narrow particle size dispersion is revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The surface area, pore volume and size distribution is determined by nitrogen adsorption porosimetery. The elemental composition and purity level is confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) data. The derivatization to IMAC and RP is evaluated by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The polymer enables the efficient phosphopeptide enrichment to equal degree from casein variants, non-fat milk, egg yolk, human serum, and HeLa cell extract. The identification of phosphorylation sites can lead to the phosphorylation pathways to understand the post-translational modifications. The identification with their sequence coverage is made using Mascot and Phosphosite Plus. It is sensitive to enrich the phosphopeptides down to 2 femtomoles with very high selectivity of 1:2000 with BSA background. These attributes are linked to the higher surface area (173.1554 m2/g) of the designed polymer. The non-specific bindings, particularly the Fe3+ linked acidic residues are also avoided. Four characteristic phosphopeptides (fibrinopeptide A and their hydrolytic products) from fibrinogen α-chain are identified from the human serum after the enrichment, which have link to the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The proportions of fibrinogen and their phosphorylation products enriched by poly­(AGE/DVB)-IMAC open new horizons in the biomarker discovery.