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New Emission Factors and Efficiencies from in-Field Measurements of Traditional and Improved Cookstoves and Their Potential Implications

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journal contribution
posted on 23.10.2017, 13:36 by Evan R. Coffey, Didier Muvandimwe, Yolanda Hagar, Christine Wiedinmyer, Ernest Kanyomse, Ricardo Piedrahita, Katherine L. Dickinson, Abraham Oduro, Michael P. Hannigan
Household cooking using solid biomass fuels is a major global health and environmental concern. As part of the Research on Emissions Air quality Climate and Cooking Technologies in Northern Ghana study, we conducted 75 in-field uncontrolled cooking tests designed to assess emissions and efficiency of the Gyapa woodstove, Philips HD4012, threestone fire and coalpot (local charcoal stove). Emission factors (EFs) were calculated for carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and particulate matter (PM). Moreover, modified combustion (MCE), heat transfer (HTE) and overall thermal efficiencies (OTE) were calculated across a variety of fuel, stove and meal type combinations. Mixed effect models suggest that compared to traditional stove/fuel combinations, the Philips burning wood or charcoal showed significant fuel and energy based EF differences for CO, but no significant PM changes with wood fuel. MCEs were significantly higher for Philips wood and charcoal-burning stoves compared to the threestone fire and coalpot. The Gyapa emitted significantly higher ratios of elemental to organic carbon. Fuel moisture, firepower and MCE fluctuation effects on stove performance were investigated with mixed findings. Results show agreement with other in-field findings and discrepancies with some lab-based findings, with important implications for estimated health and air quality impacts.