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Natural Antibiotic Oregano in Hydroxyapatite-Coated Titanium Reduces Osteoclastic Bone Resorption for Orthopedic and Dental Applications

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journal contribution
posted on 2020-11-12, 23:13 authored by Ashley A. Vu, Susmita Bose
Traditional infection prevention and treatment methods include synthetic antibiotics, which can cause severe adverse side effects. Carvacrol and thymol are biologically active monoterpenoid extractants from oregano leaves with antibiotic capabilities; however, little is known regarding their effects on bone tissue engineering. The objective of this work is to understand their effects on osteogenesis, specifically with osteoblast and osteoclast cells, from surface-modified Ti6Al4V with plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings. This system is an alternative to cemented implants to aid in bone healing. Results reveal that full carvacrol release from the HA matrix is successful in aqueous environments and modulation of release kinetics can also be made using polycaprolactone (PCL) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) polymers. From HA-pressed disc samples in physiological pH, full carvacrol release is achieved in 10 days using PCL/PEG, about 95% release in 50 days using no polymer, and 60% in 50 days when using a PCL coating. Without polymer, full carvacrol release is achieved after 3 days from HA coatings in both physiological pH and acidic pH, mimicking the post-surgery environment. The release is assessed as a diffusion-based mechanism in phosphate-buffered saline but degradation-based mechanism in acetate buffer solution. Carvacrol and thymol show bacterial inhibition of Staphylococcus epidermidis and no cytotoxic effects on osteoblast proliferation in vitro. Carvacrol and thymol also induce a significant 7% reduction in osteoclast tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity, caused by poorly attached cellular morphologies, leading to an approximately 65% reduction in osteoclast resorption pit formation. Our goal is to demonstrate a natural medicinal system that can support bone healing while providing infection prevention and reducing costly revision surgeries for orthopedic and dental applications.