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Magnetoresponsive Artificial Cilia Self-Assembled with Magnetic Micro/Nanoparticles

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journal contribution
posted on 2022-12-12, 10:03 authored by Minsu Kang, Donghyuk Lee, Haejin Bae, Hoon Eui Jeong
Biological cilia have exquisitely organized dynamic ultrafine structures with submicron diameters and exceptional aspect ratios, which are self-assembled with ciliary proteins. However, the construction of artificial cilia with size and dynamic functions comparable to biological cilia remains highly challenging. Here, we propose a self-assembly technique that generates magnetoresponsive artificial cilia with a highly ordered 3D structural arrangement using vapor-phase magnetic particles of varying sizes and shapes. We demonstrate that both monodispersed Fe3O4 nanoparticles and Fe microparticles can be assembled layer-by-layer vertically in patterned magnetic fields, generating both “nanoscale” or “microscale” artificial cilia, respectively. The resulting cilia display several structural features, such as diameters of single particle resolution, controllable diameters and lengths spanning from nanometers to micrometers, and accurate positioning. We further demonstrate that both the magnetic nanocilia and microcilia can dynamically and immediately actuate in response to modulated magnetic fields while providing different stroke ranges and actuation torques. Our strategy provides new possibilities for constructing artificial nano- and microcilia with controlled 3D morphology and dynamic field responsiveness using magnetic particles of varied sizes and shapes.