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Hole Blocking Layer-Free Perovskite Solar Cells with High Efficiencies and Stabilities by Integrating Subwavelength-Sized Plasmonic Alloy Nanoparticles

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journal contribution
posted on 2019-02-11, 00:00 authored by Xi Chen, Min Gu
Perovskite solar cells hold great promise as prospective alternatives of renewable power sources. Recently hole blocking layer-free perovskite solar cells, getting rid of complex and high-temperature fabrication processes, have engaged in innovative designs of photovoltaic devices. However, the elimination of the hole blocking layer constrains the energy conversion efficiencies of perovskite solar cells and severely degrades the stabilities. In this paper a simple approach (without energy-consuming and time-consuming procedures) for the fabrication of hole blocking layer-free perovskite solar cells has been demonstrated by an integration of copper–silver alloy nanoparticles, which are synthesized by the wet chemical method with controllable diameters and elemental compositions. The rear-side integration of the subwavelength-sized silver–copper alloy particles (200 nm diameter), through a spraying/drying method, realizes a pronounced absorption enhancement of the perovskite layer by effectively light scattering in a broadband wavelength range and achieves a series resistance decrease of the solar cell because of high electrical conductivities of the alloy particles. The particle integration achieves the highest efficiency of 18.89% due to the significant improvement in both optical and electrical properties of solar cells, making this device one of the highest-performing hole blocking layer-free perovskite solar cells and plasmonic perovskite solar cells. Moreover, the copper-based nanoparticles prevent the perovskite from diffusing into metal back electrodes. Because the diffusion can lead to a severe corrosion of the Au electrode and thus an efficiency degradation, the alloy nanoparticle integration between the perovskite and the electrode results in 80% and 200% improvements in the long-term stability and the photostability of solar cells, respectively. Through the proposed simple and effective fabrication process, our results open up new opportunities in the manufacturability of perovskite solar cells.