Hemodynamic changes during aortic valve surgery among patients with aortic stenosis
Introduction. Patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) undergoing surgery are at increased risk of hypotension and hypoperfusion. Although treatable with inotropic agents or fluid, little is known about how these therapies affect central hemodynamics in AS patients under general anesthesia. We measured changes in central hemodynamics after dobutamine infusion and fluid bolus among patients with severe AS and associated these changes with preoperative echocardiography. Methods. We included 33 patients with severe AS undergoing surgical AVR. After induction of general anesthesia, hemodynamic measurements were obtained with a pulmonary artery catheter, including Cardiac index (CI), stroke volume index (SVi) and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP). Measurements were repeated during dobutamine infusion, after fluid bolus and lastly after sternotomy. Results. General anesthesia resulted in a decrease in CI and SVi compared to preoperative values. During dobutamine infusion CI increased but mean SVi did not (38 ± 12 vs 37 ± 13 ml/m2, p = .90). Higher EF and SVi before surgery and a larger decrease in SVi after induction of general anesthesia were associated with an increase in SVi during dobutamine infusion. After fluid bolus both CI, SVi (48 ± 12 vs 37 ± 13 ml/min/m2, p < .0001) and PCWP increased. PCWP increased mostly among patients with a larger LA volume index. Conclusion. In patients with AS, CI can be increased with both dobutamine and fluid during surgery. Dobutamine’s effect on SVI was highly variable and associated with baseline LVEF, and an increase in CI was mostly driven by an increase in heart rate. Fluid increased SVi at the cost of an increase in PCWP.