Excess healthcare costs in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease by renal dysfunction stage
To build upon previous outdated studies by comprehensively assessing the direct healthcare burden of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD).
Patients with ≥2 diagnoses for ADPKD (ADPKD cohort) were identified in the US fee-for-use IBM Truven Health Analytics MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters and IBM Truven Health Analytics MarketScan Medicare Supplemental databases (01 January 2015–31 December 2017) and matched (1:3) to controls without ADPKD (non-ADPKD cohort). The index date was the last calendar date followed by 12 months continuous enrollment (study period). Patients with ADPKD were stratified into one of seven mutually exclusive groups based on chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages (I–V), end-stage renal disease requiring renal replacement therapy (ESRD-RRT), and unknown stage.
During the 12-month study period, patients with ADPKD incurred significantly higher total healthcare costs than those without ADPKD (mean cost difference = $22,879 per patient per year [PPPY]; p < .001). Besides CKD stages I and II, total healthcare cost differences increased as patients progressed beyond CKD stage III, with the greatest difference observed among patients with ESRD-RRT. Total healthcare cost differences between cohorts were more pronounced in subgroups of patients with hypertension ($29,347) and with high risk of rapid progression ($39,976). Similar results were observed in the Medicare Supplemental population, with a total mean cost difference of $42,694 PPPY (p < .001); cost difference was also higher in the hypertension ($46,461 PPPY) and high risk of rapid progression ($45,708 PPPY) subgroups.
Results may not be representative of the overall ADPKD US population; CKD stage was based on diagnosis and procedure codes; criteria used to identify ADPKD at risk of rapid progression did not rely on laboratory values; there may be billing inaccuracies and omissions in health insurance claims data.
This study demonstrated the substantial healthcare costs associated with ADPKD, which increased as patients progressed through more severe CKD stages.