Evaluation of Gas Formation and Consumption Driven by Crossover Effect in High-Voltage Lithium-Ion Batteries with Ni-Rich NMC Cathodes
journal contributionposted on 2019-11-05, 19:35 authored by Chengyu Mao, Rose E. Ruther, Linxiao Geng, Zhenglong Li, Donovan N. Leonard, Harry M. Meyer, Robert L. Sacci, David L. Wood
Gas formation during lithium-ion battery (LIB) cycling impacts the stability and safety of these batteries, especially for those containing Ni-rich NMC cathodes. In this paper, the cycling performance and gassing behavior of NMC811/graphite full cells with 4.2 and 4.4 V upper cutoff voltages were first compared. Cells with a 4.2 V upper cutoff voltage had good cycling stability, exhibiting a capacity retention of 96.8% after 100 cycles and generated little gas. On the other hand, cells with a 4.4 V upper cutoff voltage lost over 25% of initial capacity after 100 cycles and generated large amounts of gas in the first 10 cycles. Electrochemical cycling of anode and cathode symmetric cells was implemented to isolate gases formed at the electrode. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the gas formation and associated material surfaces and structural properties. It was found that CO2 and fluorinated alkanes were the dominant gases evolved on the cathode side during cycling to 4.4 V. Gas crossover to the anode led to the depletion of gaseous products, which stabilized the cell performance to some extent. However, the growing surface reconstruction layer at the cathode, the thickening of the solid electrolyte interphase layer at the anode, and the gradual depletion of lithium inventory collectively contributed to the continuous capacity loss of full cells cycled to 4.4 V.