Essential oil of Cephalotaxus griffithii needle inhibits proliferation and migration of human cervical cancer cells: involvement of mitochondria-initiated and death receptor-mediated apoptosis pathways
This study was conducted to determine the effect of Cephalotaxus griffithii needle essential oil (CGNO) on proliferation and migration of human cervical cancer (HCC) cells. CGNO treatment decreased the viability of all the tested HCC (HeLa, ME-180 and SiHa) cells. Morphological and DNA fragmentation analysis of CGNO-treated HeLa cells indicated the involvement of apoptosis in inducing HCC cell death. CGNO increased mitochondrial membrane depolarisation and upregulated the expression of caspase-9, caspase-8, caspase-3 and cleaved-PARP. The activity of caspase-8 and caspase-9 was also significantly increased. Wound healing and transwell migration assay demonstrated that CGNO significantly inhibited the migration of HeLa cells to close a scratched wound and also inhibited their migration through filter towards a chemotactic stimulus. Taken together, these results indicated that CGNO inhibited the proliferation and migration of HCC cells. Of note, CGNO induced HeLa cell death through mitochondria-initiated and death receptor-mediated apoptosis pathway.