Drug Solubilization by Mixtures of Cyclodextrins: Additive and Synergistic Effects
journal contributionposted on 04.01.2019, 00:00 by Christian Schönbeck, Karina Gaardahl, Bryan Houston
Cyclodextrins are popular drug solubilizers, but the use of the natural cyclodextrins is hampered by their tendency to coprecipitate with the drug. To understand and overcome such problems, we have studied the solubility of dexamethasone in the presence of natural β-cyclodextrin and γ-cyclodextrin, individually and in various combinations. Equilibrium models of the phase-solubility diagrams with individual cyclodextrins revealed that dexamethasone was solubilized as 1:1 complexes, but formation of insoluble higher-order complexes set an upper limit to the concentration of solubilized dexamethasone. This limit could be raised from 8 to 17 mM by using combinations of the two cyclodextrins, as their solubilizing properties were additive in some regions of the phase-solubility diagram and synergistic in other regions. The additive effects arise from the additivity of solubilitiesthe same phenomenon contributes to the good solubilizing properties of many modified cyclodextrins. The synergistic effects, however, could not be explained. The results open up for an increased use of the natural cyclodextrins as an improved alternative to modified cyclodextrins.