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Correlation between the Structure of Water in the Vicinity of Carboxybetaine Polymers and Their Blood-Compatibility

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journal contribution
posted on 06.12.2005, 00:00 authored by Hiromi Kitano, Susumu Tada, Takayuki Mori, Kohei Takaha, Makoto Gemmei-Ide, Masaru Tanaka, Mitsuhiro Fukuda, Yoshiyuki Yokoyama
The structure and hydrogen bonding of water in the vicinity of carboxybetaine homopolymer (poly[1-carboxy-N,N-dimethyl-N-(2‘-methacryloyloxyethyl)methanaminium inner salt] (PolyCMB), and a random copolymer of CMB and n-butyl methacrylate, Poly(CMB-r-BMA), with various molecular weights were analyzed in their aqueous solutions and thin film with contours of O−H stretching of Raman and attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR−IR) spectra, respectively. The relative intensity of the collective band (C value) corresponding to a long-range coupling of O−H stretchings of the Raman spectra for aqueous solution of Poly(CMB-r-BMA) was very close to that for pure water, which is in contrast with the smaller C value in aqueous solution of ordinary polyelectrolytes. The number of hydrogen bonds collapsed by the presence of one monomer residue (Ncorr value) of PolyCMB and Poly(CMB-r-BMA) (CMB, 45 mol %) (Mw, 1.14 × 104 and 1.78 × 104, respectively) could be calculated from the C value. The Ncorr values were much smaller than those for ordinary polyelectrolytes and close to those for nonionic water-soluble polymers such as poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone). Furthermore, a water-insoluble Poly(CMB-r-BMA) with a large BMA content (Mw = 347 kD, CMB 27 mol %) could be cast as a thin film (thickness, ca. 10 μm) on a ZnSe crystal for the ATR−IR analyses. At an early stage of sorption of water into the Poly(CMB-r-BMA) film, the O−H stretching band of IR spectra for the water incorporated in the film was similar to that for free water, which is in contrast with the drastic change in the O−H stretching band of water incorporated in polymer films such as poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and poly(n-butyl methacrylate) (PBMA). The theoretical vibrational frequency for water molecules hydrating a betaine molecule calculated by using a density functional method supported the experimental results. The adhesion of human platelets to Poly(CMB-r-BMA) films was much less than that to PMMA and PBMA. With an increase in the content of CMB residue, the number of platelets adhered to the Poly(CMB-r-BMA) film drastically decreased and then gradually increased, probably due to the increase in the roughness of the film surface. These results suggest that the carboxybetaine monomer residues with a zwitterionic structure do not significantly disturb the hydrogen bonding between water molecules in both aqueous solution and thin film systems, resulting in the excellent blood-compatibility of the carboxybetaine polymers.