Clinical effects and outcomes of perampanel overdoses reported to U.S. poison centers
Perampanel is indicated for partial onset seizures in children and adults. The mechanism is unique among antiepileptic agents as it inhibits glutamate activity on AMPA receptors. Currently, there are few published case reports describing overdose.
This is a retrospective observational study of all single substance perampanel ingestions from January 2014 to December 2019 reported to the national poison data system (NPDS). The primary outcome is to describe the clinical effects of perampanel exposures. Secondary outcomes include evaluation of management and investigation of a dose–effect relationship for the purpose of triaging acute unintentional exposures.
A total of 138 exposures were reported to NPDS since the release of the agent. Median age was 20 years (IQR 10–38) with 68 (49.3%) males. The reason for exposure was most commonly therapeutic error (80, 58.0%), followed by exploratory ingestion (24, 17.4%), and suicidal ingestion (14, 10.1%). A total of six (4.3%) patients developed major effects, 20 (14.5%) moderate, 32 (23.2%) minor effects and 22 (15.9%) no effect. An additional 54 (39.1%) cases were not followed. Almost half of cases were managed at home. Of those that were in a healthcare facility (HCF) (n = 72), most were treated/evaluated and released (31, 43.1%), followed by admission to a non-critical care unit (20, 27.8%), and critical care unit (13, 18.1%). Most frequently reported symptoms were drowsiness (27, 19.6%), agitation (20, 14.5%), ataxia (13, 9.4%), and confusion (12, 8.7%). The most common therapies provided in a HCF were intravenous fluids (22,30.6%), followed by benzodiazepines (14, 19.4%), then other types of sedation (9, 12.5%). There were too few cases to determine a dose cut off for triaging.
While drowsiness, agitation, ataxia, and confusion were the most often reported symptoms, close to 19% developed moderate/major effects and almost 4% of patients received potentially life-saving interventions.