Biotransformation of ursolic acid by Circinella muscae and their anti-neuroinflammatory activities of metabolites
In this study, the biotransformation of ursolic acid by Circinella muscae CGMCC 3.2695 was investigated. Scaled-up biotransformation reactions yielded ten metabolites. Their structures were established based on extensive NMR and HR-ESI-MS data analyses, and four of them are new compounds. C. muscae could selectively catalyze hydroxylation, lactonisation, carbonylation and carboxyl reduction reactions. Furthermore, all the identified metabolites were evaluated for their anti-neuroinflammatory activities in LPS-induced BV-2 cells. Most metabolites displayed pronounced inhibitory effect on nitric oxide (NO) production. The results suggested that biotransformed derivatives of ursolic acid might be served as potential neuroinflammatory inhibitors.