Biomarkers in Heart Failure: Clinical Insights
journal contributionposted on 2021-07-13, 14:37 authored by A Salzano, R D'Assante, MZ Israr, M Eltayeb, A D'Agostino, D Bernieh, M De Luca, S Rega, B Ranieri, C Mauro, E Bossone, IB Squire, T Suzuki, AM Marra
Heart failure (HF) is a clinical syndrome caused by structural and/or functional cardiac abnormalities and resulting from impaired cardiac output or an in-crease of intracardiac pressures at rest and/or during stress. Typical signs and symptoms of HF include ankle swelling, fatigue, dyspnea and peripheral edema, pulmonary crackles, or increased jugular venous pressure. Usually, patients with ejection fraction (EF) greater than or equal to 50% are defined as HF with preserved EF, where as those with EF less than 40% have HF with reduced EF. Patients with EF between 40% and 49% are now classified as HF with midrange EF.