Biodegradable Fiducial Markers for Bimodal Near-Infrared Fluorescence- and X‑ray-Based Imaging
journal contributionposted on 2022-01-12, 21:29 authored by Żaneta Górecka, Dariusz Grzelecki, Wiktor Paskal, Emilia Choińska, Joanna Gilewicz, Robert Wrzesień, Wojciech Macherzyński, Michał Tracz, Elżbieta Budzińska-Wrzesień, Maria Bedyńska, Michał Kopka, Agnieszka Jackowska-Tracz, Ewelina Świątek-Najwer, Paweł K. Włodarski, Janusz Jaworowski, Wojciech Święszkowski
This study aimed to evaluate, for the first time, implantable, biodegradable fiducial markers (FMs), which were designed for bimodal, near-infrared fluorescence-based (NIRF) and X-ray-based imaging. The developed FMs had poly(l-lactide-co-caprolactone)-based core–shell structures made of radiopaque (core) and fluorescent (shell) composites with a poly(l-lactide-co-caprolactone) matrix. The approved for human use contrast agents were utilized as fillers. Indocyanine green was applied to the shell material, whereas in the core materials, iohexol and barium sulfate were compared. Moreover, the possibility of tailoring the stability of the properties of the core materials by the addition of hydroxyapatite (HAp) was examined. The performed in situ (porcine tissue) and in vivo experiment (rat model) confirmed that the developed FMs possessed pronounced contrasting properties in NIRF and X-ray imaging. The presence of HAp improved the radiopacity of FMs at the initial state. It was also proved that, in iohexol-containing FMs, the presence of HAp slightly decreased the stability of contrasting properties, while in BaSO4-containing ones, changes were less pronounced. A comprehensive material analysis explaining the differences in the stability of the contrasting properties was also presented. The tissue response around the FMs with composite cores was comparable to that of the FMs with a pristine polymeric core. The developed composite FMs did not cause serious adverse effects on the surrounding tissues even when irradiated in vivo. The developed FMs ensured good visibility for NIRF image-supported tumor surgery and the following X-ray image-guided radiotherapy. Moreover, this study replenishes a scanty report regarding similar biodegradable composite materials with a high potential for application.
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