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Applications and Limitations of the I2‑Mediated Carbamate Annulation for the Synthesis of Piperidines: Five- versus Six-Membered Ring Formation

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posted on 2013-10-04, 00:00 authored by Hilary M. Corkran, Stefan Munneke, Emma M. Dangerfield, Bridget L. Stocker, Mattie S. M. Timmer
A protecting-group-free synthetic strategy for the synthesis of piperidines has been explored. Key in the synthesis is an I2-mediated carbamate annulation, which allows for the cyclization of hydroxy-substituted alkenylamines into piperidines, pyrrolidines, and furans. In this work, four chiral scaffolds were compared and contrasted, and it was observed that with both d-galactose and 2-deoxy-d-galactose as starting materials, the transformations into the piperidines 1-deoxygalactonorjirimycin (DGJ) and 4-epi-fagomine, respectively, could be achieved in few steps and good overall yields. When d-glucose was used as a starting material, only the furan product was formed, whereas the use of 2-deoxy-d-glucose resulted in reduced chemo- and stereoselectivity and the formation of four products. A mechanistic explanation for the formation of each annulation product could be provided, which has improved our understanding of the scope and limitations of the carbamate annulation for piperidine synthesis.