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Amorphous, Highly Disordered Carbon Fluorides as a Novel Cathode for Sodium Secondary Batteries

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journal contribution
posted on 2016-10-18, 00:00 authored by Wen Liu, Yong Li, Bin-Xin Zhan, Bin Shi, Rui Guo, Hai-Juan Pei, Jing-Ying Xie, Zheng-Wen Fu
A strategy for enabling a novel carbon fluoride (CFx) to be a high-performance cathode material for sodium batteries is proposed and realized. An amorphous and highly disordered CFx, denoted as d-CFx, is prepared through a facile synthesis route. Herein we report on a Na/d-CFx cell reversibly discharging/charging at such a low overpotential and capacity-decay rate. The polarization of the Na/d-CFx cell is about 780 mV, the lowest value reported in the state-of-the-art Na/CFx system. The initial discharge capacity is 582.5 mA h/g, with a capacity of 412.5 mA h/g after 12 cycles. The designed d-CFx improves the Na+ diffusion rate and facilitates the reaction with larger sodium ions during the discharging process. Amorphous discharge products NaF are easily decomposed, enhancing the charge reaction. The small grain size of NaF is believed to be another key factor that enables the minimal charge gap of Na/d-CFx cells and a slower capacity-decay rate, which can facilitate the decomposition of NaF and the reformation of C–F bonds during the charging process. Generally speaking, this study encourages the further exploration of secondary sodium/CFx batteries, and the cyclability of the sodium anode is included.