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Altered Cell Cycle Arrest by Multifunctional Drug-Loaded Enzymatically-Triggered Nanoparticles

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journal contribution
posted on 2016-01-20, 00:00 authored by Can Huang, Ying Sun, Ming Shen, Xiangyu Zhang, Pei Gao, Yourong Duan
cRGD-targeting matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-sensitive nanoparticles [PLGA–PEG1K-cRGD/PLGA-peptide-PEG5K (NPs-cRGD)] were successfully developed. Au–Pt­(IV) nanoparticles, PTX, and ADR were encapsulated into NPs-RGD separately. The effects of the drug-loaded nanoparticles on the cell cycle were investigated. Here, we showed that higher cytotoxicity of drug-loaded nanoparticles was related to the cell cycle arrest, compared to that of free drugs. The NPs-cRGD studied here did not disrupt cell cycle progression. The cell cycle of Au–Pt­(IV)@NPs-cRGD showed a main S phase arrest in all phases of the cell cycle phase, especially in G0/G1 phase. PTX@NPs-cRGD and ADR@NPs-cRGD showed a higher ratio of G2/M and S phase arrest than the free drugs, respectively. Cells in G0/G1 and S phases of the cell cycle had a higher uptake ratio of NPs-cRGD. A nutrient deprivation or an increase in the requirement of nutrients in tumor cells could promote the uptake of nanoparticles from the microenvironments. In vivo, NPs-cRGD could efficiently accumulate at tumor sites. The inhibition of tumor growth coupled with cell cycle arrest is in line with that in vitro. On the basis of our results, we propose that future studies on nanoparticle action mechanism should consider the cell cycle, which could be different from free drugs. Understanding the actions of cell cycle arrest could affect the application of nanomedicine in the clinic.