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Accurate Gap Determination in Monolayer and Bilayer Graphene/h‑BN Moiré Superlattices

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journal contribution
posted on 20.11.2018, 00:00 by Hakseong Kim, Nicolas Leconte, Bheema L. Chittari, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Allan H. MacDonald, Jeil Jung, Suyong Jung
High mobility single and few-layer graphene sheets are in many ways attractive as nanoelectronic circuit hosts but lack energy gaps, which are essential to the operation of field-effect transistors. One of the methods used to create gaps in the spectrum of graphene systems is to form long period moiré patterns by aligning the graphene and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) substrate lattices. Here, we use planar tunneling devices with thin h-BN barriers to obtain direct and accurate tunneling spectroscopy measurements of the energy gaps in single-layer and bilayer graphene-h-BN superlattice structures at charge neutrality (first Dirac point) and at integer moiré band occupancies (second Dirac point, SDP) as a function of external electric and magnetic fields and the interface twist angle. In single-layer graphene, we find, in agreement with previous work, that gaps are formed at neutrality and at the hole-doped SDP, but not at the electron-doped SDP. Both primary and secondary gaps can be determined accurately by extrapolating Landau fan patterns to a zero magnetic field and are as large as ≈17 meV for devices in near-perfect alignment. For bilayer graphene, we find that gaps occur only at charge neutrality where they can be modified by an external electric field.