Sustainable Palladium-Catalyzed Tsuji–Trost Reactions Enabled by Aqueous Micellar Catalysis

Palladium-catalyzed allylic substitution, or “Tsuji–Trost” reactions, can be run under micellar catalysis conditions featuring not only chemistry in water but also numerous combinations of reaction partners that require low levels of palladium, typically on the order of 1000 ppm (0.1 mol %). These couplings are further characterized by especially mild conditions, leading to a number of cases not previously reported in an aqueous micellar medium. Inclusion of diverse nucleophiles, such as N–H heterocycles, alcohols, dicarbonyl compounds, and sulfonamides is described. Intramolecular cyclizations further illustrate the broad utility of this process. In addition to recycling studies, a multigram scale example is reported, indicative of the prospects for scale up.