Natural Carbonized Sugar as a Low-Temperature Ammonia Sensor Material: Experimental, Theoretical, and Computational Studies
journal contributionposted on 20.11.2017, 00:00 by Balaji G. Ghule, Shoyebmohamad Shaikh, Satish U. Ekar, Umesh T. Nakate, Krishna Chaitanya Gunturu, Nanasaheb M. Shinde, Mu. Naushad, Kwang Ho Kim, Colm O’Dwyer, Rajaram S. Mane
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Carbonized sugar (CS) has been synthesized via microwave-assisted carbonization of market-quality tabletop sugar bearing in mind the advantages of this synthesis method, such as being useful, cost-effective, and eco-friendly. The as-prepared CS has been characterized for its morphology, phase purity, type of porosity, pore-size distribution, and so on. The gas-sensing properties of CS for various oxidizing and reducing gases are demonstrated at ambient temperature, where we observe good selectivity toward liquid ammonia among other gases. The highest ammonia response (50%) of a CS-based sensor was noted at 80 °C for 100 ppm concentration. The response and recovery times of the CS sensor are 180 and 216 s, respectively. This unveiling ammonia-sensing study is explored through a plausible theoretical mechanism, which is further well-supported by computational modeling performed using density function theory. The effect of relative humidity on the CS sensor has also been studied at ambient temperature, which demonstrated that the minimum and maximum (20–100%) relative humidity values revealed 16 and 62% response, respectively.