Influence of ash-soot interactions on the reactivity of soot from a gasoline direct injection engine
Any type of content formally published in an academic journal, usually following a peer-review process.
Gasoline particulate filters (GPF) are being utilized in certain markets on gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicles to reduce tailpipe particulate emissions as required by particle number regulations. GPF filtration efficiency is dependent on soot build-up within the filter. Since soot oxidizes within the GPF during normal vehicle operation, an understanding of soot reactivity is important for optimizing aftertreatment architecture and engine calibration. Past work has indicated that gasoline soot reactivity may depend on levels of metallic ash species. In this work, carbonaceous particulate matter from a GDI engine are evaluated from engine operation at a consistent speed and load but with different levels of fuel injection pressures and timings to vary the relative ash to soot ratio. Soot reactivity is found to vary significantly with the ratio of ash to soot present. Interestingly, the more reactive soots possess a unique oxidation profile by which a conventional Arrhenius type expression cannot be used to quantify reactivity. To understand the mechanisms driving such distinct oxidation differences, soot samples are analyzed after being partially oxidized. Particulate characteristics are evaluated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), and scanning transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy (STEM + EDS). A mechanism is proposed that may explain further why ash affects gasoline soot reactivity to the extent seen in this and other work.
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