Hydantoin-Substituted 4,6-Dichloroindole-2-carboxylic Acids as Ligands with High Affinity for the Glycine Binding Site of the NMDA Receptor§
journal contributionposted on 07.12.2002 by Michaela Jansen, Heidrun Potschka, Claudia Brandt, Wolfgang Löscher, Gerd Dannhardt
Any type of content formally published in an academic journal, usually following a peer-review process.
A novel series of C-3 substituted 4,6-dichloroindole-2-carboxylic acids was synthesized to investigate the influence of different hydrogen-bond donor and acceptor groups at this specific position on the affinity to the glycine site of the NMDA receptor. These novel 3-indolylmethyl derivatives with ring-open (amines, sulfonamides, amides, ureas) and cyclic substituents (imidazolidin-2-ones, (thio)hydantoins) led to the discovery that compounds bearing a hydantoin substituent at the C-3 position of the indole nucleus are the most promising ones. In this series the hydantoins, ureas, and imidazolidin-2-ones were identified as very potent inhibitors of the binding of the glycine site specific ligand [3H]MDL 105,519 to pig cortical brain membranes. Since the hydantoins can be produced via a versatile synthetic approach, further amendments of the hydantoin-substituted compounds were conducted to elucidate the influence of aromatic and aliphatic moieties at position 3 of the hydantoin as well as of sterically hindered compounds (5-substituted hydantoins). On the basis of the pharmacological data obtained in displacement experiments with [3H]MDL 105,519 and the emerging structure−activity relationships, we confirm the existing pharmacophore model that suggests a hydrogen-bond acceptor and an aromatic substituent at position 3 of the indole as the key features for high affinity. Log P values indicate brain permeability and selected compounds showed anticonvulsant activity in vivo. Binding studies for the sodium channel (site 2) were also performed on some selected compounds.