rTat cause dendritic retraction in SH-SY5Y.
A. Phase contrast microscopy of SH-SY5Y cells either untreated or treated with rTat as indicated. The cells were stained with DAPI (blue) and anti-tubulin (red) to mark the nucleus and the processes, respectively. B. Tat-induced neurites retraction is time-dependent. Cell cultures were exposed to 1 pg/ml of rTat and assessed over 10 min. Values are expressed as percentage neurites retraction. P<0.01 vs control (untreated) (ANOVA, followed by Bonferroni test). Values represent mean (SD), (n = 15). C. Quantification of MAP-2 immunoreactivity revealed marked reduction (75%) in rTat-treated SH-SY5Y cells. D. Effect of rTat-treatment on SH-SY5Y neuronal death as assessed by trypan blue exclusion.