Vaccination against GIP increases energy expenditure and metabolic rate.
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Indirect calorimetry in immunized mice. Female mice were immunized (days 0, 14, 28, 42 and 125) with Qβ-GIP (n = 8) or Qβ VLPs (n = 10) and placed on a high fat diet. Indirect calorimetry was performed on half of the group on day 128 and on the other half on day 139. Combined data from these measurements are shown. (A) Oxygen consumption (VO2). The left panel shows average oxygen consumption+/−SEM. Qβ-GIP-vaccinated animals display statistically, significantly increased VO2 (p<0.0001) over the 24 h period. Average oxygen consumption+/−SEM during the dark and light phase is shown on the right. VO2 was significantly increased in Qβ-GIP-vaccinated animals compared to Qβ controls in both the dark (p = 0.02) and light phase (p = 0.02). (B) Resting metabolic rate (RMR). RMR was increased in Qβ-GIP-vaccinated animals compared to Qβ VLP controls (p = 0.05). (C) Physical activity was determined by measuring beam brakes over a 24 h period. No significant differences were observed between the two experimental groups. (D) Respiratory quotient (RQ) was measured for 24 hours during the dark and light phase. Average RQ±SEM is shown. RQ is defined as VCO2 (L)/VO2 (L). The difference observed between the two experimental groups did not reach statistical significance. (E) Food intake. Food intake was monitored over three consecutive day after the energy expenditure experiment. Average daily food intake in mg/g body weight+/−SEM (n = 5 are shown). No statistically significant difference was observed between the experimental groups (p>0.05). All statistical analyses were performed by two-sided t-tests.