TWEAK induces cardiomyopathy and metabolic reprogramming in mouse hearts.
(A) Fractional shortening (FS%, calculated as the difference in chamber dimension between diastole and systole over the chamber dimension in diastole) and (B) LV ventricular diastolic chamber dimension (LVID) were determined in mice by transthoracic echocardiography 1-day prior as well as 1, 2, and 3-week after intravenously delivery of control, Ad-GFP or Ad-TWEAK. (C) Representative M-Mode echocardiographic images at one week and three weeks post Ad-GFP and Ad-TWEAK injection in mice. Real time PCR analysis for expression of (D) PGClα and (E) OXPHOS genes in cardiac samples at 3-weeks post-Ad-GFP or Ad-TWEAK injection. Real time PCR analysis for (F) PGClα and (G) OXPHOS genes in cardiac samples at 1 week (prior to the development of heart failure) post-Ad-GFP or Ad-TWEAK injection. All real time PCR data were normalized to β-actin and presented relative to the Ad-GFP group. * p<0.05 vs. Ad-GFP, # p<0.05 vs. Ad-TWEAK-injected mice at 1 week time point, N = 5 for each group.