Sleep-related changes in arterial pressure.
(A) and (B), values of mean arterial pressure (MAP) during wakefulness (W), non-rapid-eye-movement sleep (N), and rapid-eye-movement sleep (R) in the light and dark periods, respectively. In this and the other panels, data are means ± SEM in HDC-KO (n = 11), DM (n = 7), and WT (n = 11). (C) and (D), time course of MAP changes during transitions between N and R shown in absolute values and in percentage of the values at baseline, respectively. Horizontal bars refer to the first and the last 20 s of the transitions. E, representative tracing of MAP, electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) during a transition from N to R in a DM mouse, highlighting a dramatic and sustained arterial pressure (AP) increase in R. The arrow in E indicates the awakening from R. The grey vertical bars in C, D, and E indicate the transition point between states. *, †, and ‡, P < 0.05, WT vs. DM, WT vs. HDC-KO, and HDC-KO vs. DM, respectively (t-tests).