Schematic diagram of the acoustic setup.
The PZT transducer mounted on a plastic platform was connected to the ultrasound system including a function generator, a power amplifier, and an impedance matching transformer. The sonolucent six-well culture plate was used as the acoustic chamber in this study. After the cells and/or CAPMs were homogeneously distributed in the well, the RUF irradiation with frequency of 1 MHz and output intensity of 0.5 W/cm2 was applied for defined minutes. The two arrows represent the directions of wave propagation in which the acoustic waves were transmitted from the bottom of the well (↑) as well as reflected from the gas-liquid interface at the top (↓), resulting in RUF inside the chamber.