Patterns of (a, c) AFLP diversity and (b, d) rarity within populations of the D. clusii aggregate.
(a, b) D. glaciale subsp. calcareum (yellow), D. glaciale subsp. glaciale (red) and their morphological intermediates (orange); (c, d) D. clusii s.s. (blue) and D. stiriacum (green) from the Alps and the Carpathians (insert). Dot sizes are proportional to genetic diversities and rarities given in Table 2; five weighted categories were used. The maximum extent of the Alpine ice shield during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) is given as white line; hatched areas in blue and red indicate glacial refugia (i.e., areas outside the continuous glaciation during the LGM and areas within the ice shield but situated below the LGM snow line) on calcareous and siliceous bedrock, respectively (modified from ); the Carpathians were only locally glaciated, not exceeding 1% of their total area . Scale bars: 50 km.