# PGRPLC controls gut bacteria modulating *Plasmodium* infections.

(A) Relative numbers of bacteria in ds*GFP*-treated control or *PGRPLC* kd *A. gambiae* females, fed on sugar or *P. berghei*-infected mice 24 h before sampling. Quantification was performed by quantitative genomic PCR of a conserved bacterial 16S rDNA fragment and referenced to sugar-fed controls. Error bars indicate standard errors. Comparisons between all the samples were performed using the Student's t-test and the results are shown as letters above each bar. Same letters indicate no significant difference, while different letters indicate at least P<0.05. In this graph all P values were <0.001. (B) *CEC1* relative expression in dsGFP-treated control and *PGRPLC* kd *A. gambiae* females fed on sugar, naïve blood or *P. berghei*-infected blood. Expression in sugar-fed controls is used as a reference. As in (A) different letters above each bar indicate Student's t-test P value<0.001. (C) Median numbers and distribution of *P. berghei* oocyst intensities in Gentamycin-treated (+) and untreated (−) mosquitoes. Boxes include 50% of the data and whiskers indicate the range in a log_{10}-transformed scale. Median is shown with the bar and number within each box. ***, P<0.001 of Mann Whitney test. (D) Median numbers and distribution of *P. berghei* oocyst intensities in Gentamycin-treated (+) and untreated (−) *PGRPLC* kd and ds*GFP*-treated controls shown in a log_{10}-transformed scale. As above, different letters above each dataset indicate statistically significant differences: P<0.001 for ds*GFP*(−)/ds*GFP*(+) and P<0.01 for ds*GFP*(−)/*LC*kd(−) and ds*GFP*(−)/*LC*kd(+). (E) Prevalence of melanized ookinetes in the mosquitoes presented in (D). Statistical analysis was performed with the Fisher's exact test: ds*GFP*(−)/*LC*kd(−), P<0.05; ds*GFP*(+)/*LC*kd(−), P<0.0001; *LC*kd(−)/*LC*kd(+), P<0.001. (F) Median numbers and distribution of *P. berghei* oocyst intensities in *Enterobacter*-infected (+) and non-infected (−) mosquitoes. Note that the y-axis is log_{10}-transformed. (G) Median numbers and distribution of *P. berghei* oocyst intensities in *Enterobacter*-infected (+) and non-infected (−) ds*GFP*-treated mosquitoes, and in *Enterobacter*-infected *PGRPLC* kd and REL2 kd mosquitoes. Different letters above each dataset indicate statistically significant differences as follows: P<0.005 for ds*GFP*(−)/ds*GFP*(+) and P<0.001 for ds*GFP*(+)/*LC*kd(+) and ds*GFP*(−)/*LC*kd(+). (H) Prevalence of melanized ookinetes in the mosquitoes presented in (G). ds*GFP*(−)/*LC*kd(+), P<0.05; ds*GFP*(−)/*REL2*kd(−), P<0.0001; ds*GFP*(+)/*LC*kd(+), P<0.0001; ds*GFP*(+)/*REL2*kd(+), P<0.05; *LC*kd(+)/*REL2*kd(+), P<0.005.