Ordination of immune protein transcripts (A) and disease transcripts (B) in response to urbanization and management.
Arrows indicate the direction of increase of continuous variables in multivariate space; solid black arrows are predictors and dashed gray arrows are responses. The wider the angle between a pair of arrows, the less correlated the variables they represent. Each small symbol represents one colony, with distances between symbols approximating dissimilarity in immune transcript composition (A) or disease composition (B) among colonies. Centroids represent the categorical effect of management as the mean responses of feral and managed colonies ± SEM. Immune transcript abbreviations: ABA, abaecin; DEF, defensin; HYM, hymenoptaecin; PPO, prophenoloxidase. Disease abbreviations: ABPV, Acute Bee Paralysis Virus; BQCV, Black Queen Cell Virus; CBPV, Chronic Bee Paralysis Virus; DWV, Deformed Wing Virus; IAPV, Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus; KBV, Kashmir Bee Virus; SBV, Sac Brood Virus.