Neurotoxicity mediated by HCV core protein.
Cell injury was determined by measuring β-III tubulin immunoreactivity at 48 hr post-exposure. (A) Gal or Gal-core exposure did not affect the viability of primary human fetal astrocytes (HFA). (B) Gal-core (100 nM) exposed to HFNs suppressed neuronal viability in terms of reduced β-tubulin immunoreactivity. (C) Supernatants from Gal- or Gal-core-treated astrocytes (HFA S/N) was not toxic to primary human fetal neurons (HFN, n = 3). (D) Supernatants from Gal-core-exposed microglia (HFµφ S/N) collected at 24 and 48 hr post-exposure also caused a reduction in β-tubulin immunoreactivity of HFNs. Data represent mean±SEM for three or more independent experiments (one-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests, * p<0.05 compared to mock-treated cells).