Multiple particle tracking microrheology.
The ensemble averaged mean squared displacements (<2(Δt)>>) of 100 nm particles embedded in the cytoplasm of TCM-treated MSCs (A) and 3T3 fibroblasts (B) were evaluated from 0–3 hours. For both cell lines, treatment with TCM reduced the rate of cytoplasmic particle transport in a time-dependent manner. Fluorescent image of 100 nm particles (green) in the cytoplasm of a MSC, which was fixed and stained with phalloidin (red) and DAPI (blue) (C). The phase angle, δ = arctan (G″(ω))/G′(ω)), was used to characterize the viscoelastic nature of the cytoplasm over the course of the experiment (D). The viscoelastic nature of MSCs and 3T3 fibroblasts were similar initially and 3 hours after TCM-treatment; however, MSCs responded much more rapidly to TCM with a 4-fold reduction in δ within 60 minutes. (scale bar = 10 µm)