Mitochondrial phospho-mimetic polyUb chain improves the PINK1 phenotypes in Drosophila.
(A) The mitochondrial expression of 4xUb (WT, SA and SE) rescues the abnormal wing posture caused by the loss of PINK1 activity (§ p<0.01, LacZ vs. WT, SA or SE in PINK1−/− at the same age), and 4xUb SE exerted a more profound effect (* p<0.05, SE vs. WT or SA in PINK1−/− at the same age). LacZ or Tom70MTS-2FLAG-4xUb (WT, SA or SE) was expressed under the control of MHC-GAL4 in the w- or the PINK1−/− backgrounds. LacZ served as a control. Graph showing the percentage of flies with abnormal wing posture. Adult male flies aged 7, 14 and 21 days were analyzed. n = 159–168. (B) The mitochondrial expression of 4xUb (WT, SA and SE) improved the motor activity throughout the trials (** p<0.01, LacZ vs. WT, SA or SE in PINK1−/− at the same age), whereas 4xUb SE showed the best motor activity in every trial (# p<0.01, SE vs. WT or SA in PINK1−/− at the same age). The values are presented as the mean ±SEM of 20 trials. Male flies were used for the assay.