Membrane transport experiments.
Experiments conducted on oocytes heterologously expressing various membrane transport proteins indicated with their respective controls on non-injected (NI) oocytes showing sensor readout (VSG) as a function of time. Only part of the initial stabilizing baseline region that preceded substrate application is shown (see Materials and Methods): a) PAT1, b) NaPi IIb, c) NaPi-IIc, d) PiT-2, e) Proline control, f) Pi control, g) GAT1, h) ENaC. In each case either the same or representative oocytes from the same batch were pretested using a two-electrode voltage clamp to confirm functional expression. The bars indicate the duration of application of the respective activating and blocking agents. Arrows indicate flux direction of substrate according to the assumed driving force conditions.