Maximum force and maximum force/basal area measured at failure of the tested rose prickles.
Figures are generally photos, graphs and static images that would be represented in traditional pdf publications.
In the illustrations of force direction the stem apex is situated on the left and the stem base on the right. x indicates that testing with a traction force in this direction was not possible due to slippage of the Kevlar loop. Numbers below indicate the number (n) and percentage (%) of samples having failed in the mechanical tests. In long axes type II of Rosa arvensis ‘Splendens‘ prickles were additionally tested in tension, with the prickle tested perpendicular to the stem, and in shear with the prickle tested parallel to the main axis of the stem (on the right).