Infection of primary cells and the inhibitory effects of carrageenan on the infection of primary cells.
HaCaT and primary cells were infected at an MOI of 10 by A) HPV16, B) HPV18, C) HPV31, and D) HPV45. Infections of primary cells were performed in the presence ι-carrageenan at increasing concentrations (0 µg/ml, 10 µg/ml, and 100 µg/ml) for; E) HPV16, F) HPV18, G)HPV31, and H) HPV45. Infections were analyzed by RT-qPCR measuring the relative amount of E1^E4 transcript two days post-infection. The data is plotted as relative infection at the different concentration with infection at 0 µg/ml of carrageenan set equal to one.