In vitro multilineage differentiation of integration-free PB iPSCs.
(A) Differentiation of PB iPSCs into MSCs. iPSC-MSCs show a typical MSC morphology and are capable of differentiation into adipocytes, osteoblasts and chondrocytes. Oil Red O stains the oil droplets of adipocytes. Alizarin Red stains the bone nodules formed by osteoblasts. Alcian Blue stains acid mucopolysaccharides synthesized and secreted by chondrocytes. (B) PB iPSC-derived hepatocytes show a typical morphology of hepatocytes at 25 days after hepatocytic differentiation. These cells also express markers AFP, albumin (ALB), and alpha 1-antitrypsin (α1-AT). The differentiated cells were stained with monoclonal antibody against AFP, goat anti-albumin, and goat anti-alpha 1-antitrypsin at 18 days after differentiation culture. (C) PB iPSC can be induced to differentiation into cardiomyocytes that express Troponin I marker. Cell nuclei were counterstained with DAPI.